WebMD Medical News
Louise Chang, MD
The family dinner was going well -- until a condition known as female
incontinence got in the way.
The middle-aged woman has urge incontinence, sometimes called overactive
bladder (OAB). As the name suggests, when the urge to go to the bathroom comes
on, it often can't be controlled.
She leaked urine through her clothes and onto her son and daughter-in-law's
upholstered dining room chair, an embarrassment that didn't go unnoticed.
After the cleanup, even with her daughter-in-law and other family members
assuring her that everything was fine, the woman was so humiliated she now has
trouble accepting invitations.
Urinary incontinence is primarily a physical problem, affecting an estimated
12 million U.S. adults. But incontinence can also take an emotional toll on a
When you have female incontinence, you may avoid social situations and even
sexual intimacy, and that in turn can lead to withdrawal and depression.
"Incontinence is embarrassing," says Jennifer Anger, MD, MPH, an
assistant professor of urology at the University of California Los Angeles
David Geffen School of Medicine and an attending physician at Santa Monica --
UCLA Medical Center in Santa Monica, Calif.
But if you get a medical evaluation when you first notice symptoms of female
incontinence, your doctor can suggest a host of treatments that will improve or
eliminate the condition.
"Older women think it's a normal part of aging," Anger says,
clarifying that it is not. While the condition does affect older women more
than younger, it doesn't have to be a side effect of aging.
Depression is more common in women with female incontinence, according to
several studies. In one study, published in a 2005 issue of Obstetrics
& Gynecology, researchers found that nearly three times as many women
with female incontinence had depression compared to those without the
They surveyed nearly 6,000 women, ages 30 to 90, with more than 40% of them
reporting some degree of female incontinence.
Another study, published in Social Science Medicine in 2005, found
that urinary incontinence is associated with depression in both women and men.
And if a woman is incontinent, her husband is also more likely to be depressed,
the researchers found.
Not surprisingly, the more severe the urinary incontinence, the greater the
impact on quality of life, report French researchers who evaluated 556 women
with female incontinence and compared them to more than 2,000 women without the
condition. These women had lower self-esteem, impaired well-being, and reduced
sexuality compared to the women without female incontinence.
Urinary incontinence in severe forms should be considered a disability, the
French researchers conclude in their report, published in a 2006 issue of
Neurourology and Urodynamics.
While all types of female incontinence can cause emotional distress, urge
incontinence is far more distressing, says Halina Zyczynski, MD, associate
professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Pittsburgh School
of Medicine and a specialist in female incontinence at the Magee-Womens
It's the unpredictable nature of urge incontinence that makes it so
distressing, she says. Urge incontinence isn't totally understood, but experts
think the bladder muscle may give the wrong messages to the brain, with the
bladder feeling fuller than it really is. As a result, a person with urge
incontinence feels the urgent need to go to the bathroom, even if they have
just done so.
Stress incontinence, which causes urine to leak when lifting objects,
laughing, coughing, or sneezing because of weakened pelvic floor muscles, is
less emotionally draining, Zyczynski says. "Women can learn which positions
or situations predispose them to stress incontinence [and avoid them]."
"If you know, for instance, that doing the Stairmaster makes you leak
[urine], you can avoid it," she says. "If you know that sneezing [makes
you leak urine], as your sneeze comes on, you can cross your legs or squeeze
your pelvic floor muscles."
But, unlike stress incontinence, urge incontinence occurs without warning
and is especially upsetting. "Before a woman has a chance to respond to
that urge to go [to the bathroom], urine is already running down her leg,"
The sheer volume of leaking urine associate with urge incontinence is
another reason why this condition is so distressing. Women with stress
incontinence tend to leak urine in small amounts, perhaps a teaspoon or a
tablespoon, says Zyczynski. But with urge incontinence, a woman can leak a cup
or two of urine, saturating an absorbent pad and soaking through their
Whatever form of female incontinence you have (and some women have both urge
incontinence and stress incontinence - called mixed incontinence), it is
crucial to seek help before the condition leads to social isolation, Zyczynski
tells WebMD. Once women stop socializing, she says, it's easy to see how the
withdrawal can lead to depression.
If you notice symptoms of incontinence, such as leaking urine, tell your
doctor. He or she may recommend you see a specialist, such as a urogynecologist
-- an obstetrician-gynecologist who specializes in the treatment of women with
pelvic floor problems, which includes female incontinence - or a urologist with
experience treating female incontinence.
Some medications may aggravate female incontinence, such as high blood
pressure drugs and antihistamines. If you have female incontinence and are
taking these medications, your doctor may switch you to a different drug in
hopes of alleviating the problem.
Simple remedies, such as the use of protective garments like pads or
adult-size protective panties, may lessen the problem, says Zyczynski.
Strengthening the muscles that control the bladder by doing Kegel exercises may
also help, she says.
Biofeedback may also improve female incontinence. In one study of 26 women
with urge incontinence, presented at the 2006 meeting of the American
Geriatrics Society, biofeedback helped the women learn to control their bladder
muscles and reduce the number of overactive bladder episodes.
If urinary incontinence is not helped by these remedies and is significantly
interfering with your life and activities, your doctor may suggest medications
or surgery. In one surgical procedure, surgical threads are used to help lift
the bladder up to a normal position. This allows the muscles that help hold
urine in to work better.
Another procedure, called a "sling," uses strips of material, either
natural or synthetic tissue, to support the bladder neck and prevent urinary
SOURCES: Jennifer Anger, MD, MPH, assistant professor of
urology, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine,
attending physician, Santa Monica -- UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica, Ca.
Melville, J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, September 1, 2005; vol 106:
pp 585-592; Fultz, N.H. Social Science Medicine, June 2005; vol 60: pp
2537-48. Saadoun K. Neurourology and Urodynamics, August 17, 2006;
online vol 25: pp 696-702. Halina Zyczynski, MD, associate professor of
obstetrics and gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and
specialist in female incontinence, Magee -- Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh.
American Geriatrics Society 2006 annual meeting, Chicago, May 3-7, 2006;
American Urogynecologic Society, Washington, D.C. National Kidney and Urologic
Diseases Information Clearinghouse: "Treatments for Urinary Incontinence in
Women.'' American Academy of Family Physicians web site: "What Is
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